Not long ago, the Gyeongju National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage held a preview of the excavation results of Gyeongju Jjoksaem Tomb No. 44 over the past 10 years.
The excavation, which began in 2014, was a long-term project that took place 40 years after the Hwangnam Daechong Survey (1973-75).
It was an ambitious academic research to completely dismantle and reveal the full picture of the unique tomb of Silla, ‘stone mounded tomb (jeokseok wooden tomb)’.
It was the first time that an ancient tomb had been excavated for 10 years, and that the excavation site was covered with a dome to protect the site and open to the public.
■As the excavation of the appearance of the Silla princess
proceeded, the exposed remains and excavated artifacts became a hot topic.
In 2019, pottery with a procession map reminiscent of Goguryeo tomb murals (Anak Tomb No. 3, Dance Chong) was excavated.
A year later (2020), even more amazing artifacts came out.
A set of accessories, such as a gilt-bronze crown (1 point), gold crown (1 pair), gold earrings (1 pair), breast hanging (1 set), and silver belt decoration (1 point), were exposed as they were worn by the main character. The size of the tomb was enormous. The size of the stone mound (16~19m) is comparable to that of royal tombs such as Geumgwanchong (20~22m) and Seobongchong (16~20m). The weight of the stone mound is equivalent to 198 5t trucks (992.41t).
In addition, the decoration of the drapes of pure gold hanging from the gilt-bronze crown can be seen in the southern tomb of Hwangnamdaechong, which is ‘certainly a royal tomb’.
The artifacts excavated from Jjoksaem Tomb No. 44 were consistently ‘adam-sized’. The height (23.2 cm) and diameter (15 cm) of the gilt-bronze crown are the same.
It is quite small compared to the northern tomb of Hwangnam Daechong (height 27.3 cm, diameter 17 cm), golden crown tomb (27.7 cm, 19 cm), and Cheonmachong (32.5 cm, 20 cm or larger golden crown). The left and right width (34 cm) of the excavated belt is also a ‘small size’. A silver plate, a cover artefact of a woman, was also unearthed.
So, at the time of 2020, the main character was estimated to be a ‘princess around 150 cm’.
About 860 baduk stones identified at the feet of the princess were also eye-catching. It was a very peculiar case.
I also wrote an article about the ‘Possibility of the Silla Baduk Princess’ while studying various literature and archaeological data. In April of last year (2022), the ‘Thousand Years Story-Silla Baduk Match’ event was held at the excavation site.
■Hairstyle of Princess Silla
There was such a ‘history of excavation’. A few days ago, a preview was held to summarize the results after 10 years of excavation.
The results of the preservation and restoration of the excavated artifacts in the meantime stand out.
Among them, ‘Maldarae fabric decorated with petals of silkworms’ stood out. It’s gorgeous. However, if you look at the restoration, 175 gilt-bronze dangles are suspended (protruding) in a lifted state. It means that it was not a practical item that was laid underneath while riding a horse in life. The restorations of fabrics used in various artifacts are also gorgeous. The three-colored gyeonggeum (三色經錦), which was made with patterns in three colors of red, purple, and yellow, stood out.
However, among the newly discovered research achievements, the best part is the story of the ‘protagonist’.
First, a bundle of hair about 5 cm wide was identified around the gilt-bronze crown. As a result of the analysis, sulfur (S) was detected, and skull fragments were identified nearby. I also figured out the hairstyle. It looks like a trace of hair gathered in a thickness of about 1 cm and wrapped in fabric or decorated.
Also, in 2020, the height of the main character (Princess Silla) was estimated to be about 150 cm. At the time, it was a rough calculation based on the state of wearing the accessories. This time, the height of the main character was corrected to 130 cm by closely examining the floor of the wooden coffin. As a result of synthesizing the size of the excavated artifacts, the age was estimated to be ‘around 10 years old’. The main character of Jjoksaem Tomb No. 44 was identified as ‘a 10-year-old Silla princess who died at the end of the 5th century’.
■A 5-year-old prince unexpectedly summoned
In the passage of ’10-year-old Princess Silla’, there was a tomb in Gyeongju that suddenly came to mind. It is a golden gun.
The main character of this tomb is presumed to be ‘a little prince about 5 years old who died in the early 6th century’. Geumryeongchong was discovered in 1924 during the Japanese colonial period.
Amazing artifacts have been poured out. I saw jewelry made of pure gold, including gold crowns, earrings, belts, necklaces, and bracelets. There are also two figures on horseback (pottery in the form of equestrian figures) (national treasures). In addition, golden bells (gold bells), which were not found in the Golden Crown Tomb (excavated in 1921), were excavated.
That is why the name ‘Geumnyeongchong’ was attached to this tomb. Then, what is the specific basis for ‘Geumryeongchong = 5-year-old little prince’?
First of all, the gender of the main character of the Shilla tomb is judged mainly by whether he is wearing ‘earrings and a sword’.
Generally, it is estimated that ‘thin ring earrings – large knife = male’ and ‘thick ring earrings – small knife (silver sword, etc.) = female’.
A ‘thin ring earring’ was seen on the head of the main character of Geumryeong gun, and a ’round ring large knife with ornament’ (a two-ringed sword) was seen on her waist.
That’s why I assumed it was male. How could I know the age of the main character of Geumryeongchong?
Her size can be estimated from the various accessories exposed in the place where the main character was lying. Like Tomb No. 44… .
Come to think of it, the distance between the accessories connecting the ‘head (decorated end of the crown) – waist – feet (anklet beads)’ did not exceed 90 cm.
The main character was about 90 cm tall. The size of the crown was also small. The diameter of the crown worn by the main character (15 cm) was smaller than the items excavated from other tombs (Cheonmachong 20cm, Golden Crown Tomb 19cm, and Seobongchong 18.4cm). It’s just that the head is so small.
It is the same with the golden belt of the golden gun. There are 23 ‘decorative metal attachments’ on the belt, and the length is about 74 cm. It is quite small compared to the Cheonmachong Gold Waistband (44 points, length 125cm). Cheonmachong is presumed to be a king or an adult male member of the royal family.
If so, it is highly likely that Geumnyeongchong, built around the same time as Cheonmachong (early 6th century), is the tomb of a prince who died young.
Here, let’s infer the age based on the height of about 90 cm. In 2001, a mummy dating from the mid-17th century was excavated in Yangju, Gyeonggi Province.
The mummy’s height was 99.4 cm, and the age measured by teeth was found to be around 5.5 years old. Of course, the environment will change over time.
However, if the height (90cm) of the main character of Geumryeongchong is 5-6 years old, it can be estimated that he is a prince.
■With and without a burial ground (Geumryeongchong)
Let’s compare the tombs of a 10-year-old princess (Jjoksaem No. 44) and a 5-year-old prince (Geumryeongchong) based on data compiled by Shim Hyeon-cheol, a curator at the Gyeongju National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. The two tombs are about 340 meters apart.
The tomb construction period is generally estimated to be ‘the end of the 5th century (Joksaem No. 44)’ and ‘the beginning of the 6th century (Geumnyeongchong)’.
This is the age estimated by the excavated earthenware and the style of the gold crown (gilt-bronze crown).
Above all, there is a dramatic indicator that divides solidarity. Whether or not there is a net. <Samguksagi> said, “In the year 502 (King Jijeung 3), burial is prohibited by national law.” However, there is no trace of a martyr’s burial in the Geumryeongchong. On the other hand, it seems that 5-6 people were sacrificed in Jjoksaem Tomb No. 44.
In particular, there was a blank space next to the main character. I saw an earring there. It’s a sign that someone has been purged.
It can be a nanny (or nanny) or a servant (maid-in-waiting) who raised or took care of (mother) the main character during her lifetime. Gold earrings and the like were also scattered on the stone bedside of the main character. It’s clear that it belongs to another martyr. What would happen to him if the main character of Jjissam No. 44 lived a little longer and he died after 502? Five or six precious human beings would not have become victims of the barbaric custom of ‘burial of death’. It is as if you can hear the screams of the pitiful martyrs who had to die helplessly for the sake of their master. Too bad.
■ Can you tell which king’s daughter the daughter of King Soji and the son of King Jijeung were the ’10-year-old princess’ and ‘5-year-old prince’? I don’t know if there is a prestigious monument saying “I am King Muryeong” like the tomb of King Muryeong of Baekje. So you can’t say 100% ‘someone’s prince or princess’.
However, if Jjoksaem Tomb No. 44 was built at the end of the 5th century, who was the king who ruled that era?
If Silla was ruled for 21 years in the late 5th century, it is possible that Jjoksaem Tomb No. 44 was a princess of the reign of King Soji.
So, who was the main character of Geumryeongchong, that is, the ‘5-year-old prince’? We cannot rule out the possibility that it was King Jijeung (500-514), who banned the burial system by national law. King Jijeung may have created a tomb (Geumryeongchong) without a single victim as a demonstration case after eliminating the funeral ceremony.
■ A 5-year-old prince who died in an accident,
and a 10-year-old princess who died from illness. In other words, there is a possibility that the main character of Geumryeongchong died in a sudden accident.
On the other hand, one can imagine that the 10-year-old princess of Tomb No. 44 did not have enough time to prepare for her death, in other words, she died of illness. There is a reason. The Gyeongju National Museum has rediscovered the Geumryeongchong since 2018.
As a result, it was found that the Geumryeongchong was squeezed between the Bonghwangdae (tumulus), which is the largest in Gyeongju and clearly contains the royal tomb, and the two existing tombs. Strange. Why did the ancient tomb (Geumnyeongchong) with a diameter of 30 m bother to be ‘located’ in that cramped gap?
In addition, if the tomb is built with a stone mound of that size, wooden pillars are installed to prevent it from collapsing when the stone mound is built.
However, in the case of Geumnyeongchong, there was no such pillar facility. It means it was created in haste.
Perhaps it was because of the unexpected death of the protagonist of Geumryeongchong, that is, the little prince.
In other words, it could be that the main character of Bonghwangdae (King Soji?), when the prince he loved (whether he was a son of a royal palace or a son of a concubine) died suddenly, he had a funeral with the best courtesy, with plenty of love for his child. Enough to be inserted in front of the existing rooms 127-1 and 127-2… .
On the other hand, Jjoksaem Tomb No. 44 was created stably without overlapping with surrounding tombs. Even though she was a young princess around 10 years old, she must have had some time to face her death. That’s why I’m guessing it’s not a soldier. It is clear that the tomb was built according to a set strict manual and the relics were piled up one after another.
Even if there are princes and princesses like baduk and stone mortars, would the prince have a higher status?
The 5-year-old prince (Geumnyeongchong) wore a golden crown, and the 10-year-old princess (Jjoksaem No. 44) wore a gilt-bronze crown.
Also of interest are the ‘signature artifacts’ of the two tombs.
In the case of Tomb No. 44 of Jjouksaem, we can cite the ‘Earthenware of Matrimonial Island’ and ‘Go stone’, ‘A silk worm-decorated ball’, ‘1500 year old hair’, and ‘three-color fabric’. Among them, a somewhat unexpected artifact excavated from the tomb of a 10-year-old princess, ‘Go stone’ stands out.
It reminds me of Choi Jeong 9-dan, who is prevalent in the world baduk world these days. The storytelling of the Shilla version of ‘Choi Jeong 9 Dan’ is possible, isn’t it?
There are more ‘push’ artifacts from the excavation team. It is a stone mortar and pestle. Stone mortars are excavated from the southern tomb of Hwangnamdaechong.
Of course, judging from the size of the stone mortar and the capacity of the depression, it is highly likely that it was buried for a symbolic meaning.
But what if it was a medicinal mortar used to prepare medicine? In the end, I wonder if he buried the mortar and pestle he used to prepare medicines for the young princess who died of illness.
■ Model of Equestrian Figure Pottery
What about Geumryeongchong, the tomb of a 5-year-old prince? The first distinctive artifact is the Gold Bell, or Gold Bell.
Two types of golden bells were excavated: one hanging from the main character’s waist and one hanging from a golden crown.
The golden bell of the gold crown is finished with glass in the middle after turning the gold belt twice. About 10 soil drops were also confirmed.
All 10 points had holes through the top and bottom. It contained clay beads used to make sounds.
It must have been a golden bell or a clay bell that the main character, a 5-year-old little prince, shook and played with.
Perhaps the signature relic of Geumryeongchong is the ‘equestrian figure’ pottery.
There are two pottery pieces in the form of equestrian figures found at the bedside of a 5-year-old prince. One piece is the statue of the owner (height 26.8 cm). The other point is that it is a servant statue (23.4 cm tall) that follows the owner.
The master wore a tricorne with a cone-shaped sash and ornaments, and armor hung over his legs. The servant is naked and topless, with his topknot tied in his towel카지노사이트. He has a bag on his back and holds something like a bell in his right hand.
There are some interesting studies in this regard. This pottery in the form of an equestrian figure has a strong impression as if it was modeled after someone else.
If that’s the case, that model means that the main character of Geumryeongchong is likely to be a 5-year-old prince. It is a situation where a servant guides and follows the prince who leaves for the underworld. It may have replaced the burial system, which is strictly prohibited by national law, in this way.
■Shilla version of a car A prince who loved horses?
In addition, there were many relics related to horses in Geumnyeongchong. At least three sets of horse harnesses were stored, including a bit, saddle, footrest, and a harness. Among them, the front cover (saddle) and footrests, which show the body of the rider, are small.
It’s another clue that the main character of this horse is a child. In addition, an overwhelmingly large horse-shaped pottery with a remaining height of 56 cm was also unearthed. This word sticks out its tongue like a ‘melon’. It’s like playing a joke with the little prince.
Even today, boys love cars and heavy machinery. This 5-year-old little prince could have loved horses too. This kid must have put the horse-related items he liked so much in his life. So, some speculate, “Didn’t the little prince die suddenly while riding a horse?” Of course, let your imagination run wild based on archaeological artifacts.
The two tombs were created 340 meters apart in space and 30 to 40 years apart in time. However, the story of the short life and death of a 10-year-old princess and a 5-year-old prince is being conveyed well beyond time and space in 1500 years.
The 10-year excavation is over, but what about the dome structure that protects the excavation site and is open to the public? I want to ask.